The International Court of Justice (I.C.J.), also known as the World Court, replaced the Permanent Court of International Justice (P.C.I.J.) in 1946.
Cite a case before the International Court of Justice by:
Example: Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar. v. U.S.), Judgment, 1986 I.C.J. Rep. 14, ¶ 190 (June 27).
Cite separately published pleadings by:
Separately published pleadings before the I.C.J. are published in Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (I.C.J. Pleadings),
I.C.J. rules and acts are published in Acts and Documents Concerning the Organization of the Court (abbreviated I.C.J. Acts & Docs.).
I.C.J. materials that have not been published may be cited to International Legal Materials (I.L.M.) or to the I.C.J. website http://www.icj-cij.org
Cite a case before the Court of Justice of the European Union (formerly the Court of Justice of the European Communities) or the General Court (formerly the Court of First Instance) by:
For cases before the Court of Justice since 1989, the case number will contain the prefix “C”; older cases will not have a prefix.
Cases lodged before the General Court, created in 1989, will carry the prefix “T,” and the Civil Service Tribunal will carry the prefix "F." Where the Commission, Council, or Parliament of the European Union is one of the parties, give its name as “Commission,” “Council,” or “Parliament,” respectively.
Example: Case T-198/98, Micro Leader Bus. v. Comm’n, 1999 E.C.R. II-3989.
Cite cases before the European Court of Human Rights to European Court of Human Rights, Reports of Judgments and Decisions (Eur. Ct. H.R.). Reports of Judgments and Decisions were discontinued after 2015.
For cases after 2015, cite the Court’s official website, HUDOC (rule 18.1). Citations of HUDOC should include:
Cite cases of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders (ITLOS Rep.). Cite cases before the Tribunal by:
Cite cases of international criminal tribunals (e.g., the International Criminal Court, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon) as follows:
Cite cases before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to the Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (Inter-Am. Comm’n H.R.). The citation should include:
Example: Tortrino v. Argentina, Case 11.597, Inter-Am. Comm’n H.R., Report No. 7/98, OEA/Ser.L./V/II.98, doc. 7 rev. ¶ 15 (1997).
Cite the English version whenever possible. If an official report is not yet available, cite the Commission’s official website.
For cases before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, cite the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Decisions and Judgments (Inter-Am. Ct. H.R.). The citation should include:
Cite the English version whenever possible.
When citing the print reports, cite Series E with:
When citing an online version:
When citing the print reports:
When citing an online version: